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“Magnetic bits lie at the heart of hard-disk drives, tape and next-generation magnetic memory,” said Christopher Lutz, lead nanoscience researcher at IBM Research – Almaden in San Jose, California.

“We conducted this research to understand what happens when you shrink technology down to the most fundamental extreme -- the atomic scale.” Dr.

It is therefore advantageous to avoid sick individuals.

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The Old World monkeys live in the dense rainforests of Southern Gabon. They excrete gastro-intestinal parasites in their feces and thus the skin and fur of parasitized individuals, particularly in their peri-anal area, is highly infectious.Social grooming is of enormous importance for the group members since it minimizes conflicts and increases the well-being of both grooming partners.However, the resulting physical proximity also increases the risk of transmission of pathogens."As a species that lives in close contact with conspecifics, the ability of mandrills to recognize safe social partners and avoid risky contacts shows a strategy that minimizes the transmission of parasites" explains Clémence Poirotte, a scientist at the German Primate Center.The pathogens cause a selection in favor of anti-parasitic behavior.

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As soon as the infected animals received medical treatment, the animals concerned received significantly more social grooming than before.Olfactory tests with mandrills in open enclosures showed that they avoided the immediate vicinity to heavily parasitized feces samples.Humans - like most non-human primates - are social beings and profit in many respects from the benefits of a community.However, their closeness to conspecifics is an opportunity for pathogens and parasites to infect new hosts.The monkeys are able to smell an infected group member and consequently groom them less than healthy individuals.

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