Some of the most mountainous regions such as the Moroccan Rif remained outside Rome's control and the pressures put on the Western Roman Empire by the invading forces of the Barbarian invasions (the Vandals and Spain) in the 5th-century reduced Roman control and establishment of the Vandal Kingdom with its capital at Carthage in 430 AD.
A century later, the Byzantine emperor Justinian I sent a force under General Belisarius that succeeded in destroying the Vandal kingdom; Byzantine rule lasted for 150 years.
That was followed by the brief invasion of the Germanic Vandals, the equally brief re-establishment of a weak Byzantine rule by the Byzantine Empire, the rule of the Islamic Caliphates under the Umayyads, the Abbasids, and the Fatimids.
As recently as the late 19th century it was used to refer to the Western Mediterranean region of coastal North Africa in general, and to Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia in particular.It was envisioned initially by Muammar Gaddafi as a superstate putting Morocco's long cold war with Algeria to a rest. Singletreff marburg-biedenkopf However, this progress was short-lived, and the union is now frozen.The Carthage defeat in the Punic Wars during 206 BC allowed Rome to establish the Province of Africa and control many of these ports and eventually control the entire Maghreb north of the Atlas Mountains.Rome was greatly helped by the defection of King Massinissa and Carthaginian's eastern Numidian Massylii client-allies.
After the 19th century, areas of the Maghreb were colonized by France, Spain and later Italy.Today, more than two and a half million Maghrebi immigrants live in France, many from Algeria and Morocco.Various other influences are also prominent throughout the Maghreb. In northern coastal towns, in particular, several waves of European immigrants influenced the population in the Medieval era.The Berbers contested outside-the-area control although after the 640s-700 AD period the Arabs controlled the entire region.
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